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England was a nation and, since the early 18th century, a constituent country of the United Kingdom on Earth. (TV: The Highlanders [+]Loading...["The Highlanders (TV story)"]) The United Kingdom was at times referred to simply as "England". (PROSE: World Game [+]Loading...["World Game (novel)"])

Frequently visited by the Doctor, (TV: Fury from the Deep [+]Loading...["Fury from the Deep (TV story)"]) it was also their temporary home on a number of occasions, (TV: "An Unearthly Child" [+]Part of An Unearthly Child, Loading...{"namedep":"An Unearthly Child (1)","1":"An Unearthly Child (TV story)"}; AUDIO: The Haunting of Thomas Brewster [+]Loading...["The Haunting of Thomas Brewster (audio story)"]) as well as the location of their Time Lord-imposed exile. (TV: Spearhead from Space [+]Loading...["Spearhead from Space (TV story)"]) The Twelfth Doctor spent several decades lecturing at St Luke's University, while guarding a vault. (TV: The Pilot [+]Loading...["The Pilot (TV story)"])

Many of the Doctor's companions hailed from England — or at least embarked on their journeys in the Doctor's TARDIS from there — beginning with Barbara Wright and Ian Chesterton (TV: "An Unearthly Child" [+]Part of An Unearthly Child, Loading...{"namedep":"An Unearthly Child (1)","1":"An Unearthly Child (TV story)"}) and continuing on through to Ryan, Graham, Yaz, (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth [+]Loading...["The Woman Who Fell to Earth (TV story)"]) and Dan. (TV: The Halloween Apocalypse [+]Loading...["The Halloween Apocalypse (TV story)"]) Only a few human companions expressed antipathy towards the country, most of whom were not themselves English. Scots Jamie McCrimmon (TV: The Highlanders [+]Loading...["The Highlanders (TV story)"]) and Amy Pond weren't fans, the latter of whom called it, flatly, "rubbish". (TV: The Eleventh Hour [+]Loading...["The Eleventh Hour (TV story)"]) Egyptian Erimem visited England only after visiting France first, which she preferred. American Peri Brown, who accompanied the ex-Pharaoh on her visit to the country in the 15th century, said that it "beat her" why the Doctor kept coming back to England's "muddy glory", but admitted that it "got better" in the 20th century thanks to the Beatles and "fashion sense". (AUDIO: The Kingmaker [+]Loading...["The Kingmaker (audio story)"])

England was frequently the subject to various alien invasions, attacks, plans, intergalactic battles, experiments or conspiracies, particularly throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. It was the home to Torchwood One and UNIT operated throughout the country. (TV: The Dalek Invasion of Earth [+]Loading...["The Dalek Invasion of Earth (TV story)"], Army of Ghosts [+]Loading...["Army of Ghosts (TV story)"], The Invasion [+]Loading...["The Invasion (TV story)"]) The Doctor visited it throughout its history, from the time of the Celts (AUDIO: The Relics of Time [+]Loading...["The Relics of Time (audio story)"]) to its journey into space as part of the Starship UK. (TV: The Beast Below [+]Loading...["The Beast Below (TV story)"])

England was also the main base of operations for Sarah Jane Smith (TV: A Girl's Best Friend [+]Loading...["A Girl's Best Friend (TV story)"], Invasion of the Bane [+]Loading...["Invasion of the Bane (TV story)"]; AUDIO: Comeback [+]Loading...["Comeback (audio story)"]) and for K9 Mark 2. (TV: Regeneration [+]Loading...["Regeneration (TV story)"])

England would be honoured by "English theme" planets, several of which were visited by the Eighth Doctor and Liv Chenka. (AUDIO: Absent Friends [+]Loading...["Absent Friends (audio story)"])


Wales and England. (TV: Army of Ghosts [+]Loading...["Army of Ghosts (TV story)"])

England was south of Scotland, (TV: Tooth and Claw [+]Loading...["Tooth and Claw (TV story)"]) and east of Wales. (TV: Boom Town [+]Loading...["Boom Town (TV story)"], TV: Children of Earth: Day One [+]Loading...["Children of Earth: Day One (TV story)"]) It was separated from the mainland of Europe by the English Channel. (TV: The Sea Devils [+]Loading...["The Sea Devils (TV story)"]) Along the east coast of England was the North Sea, (TV: The Lie of the Land [+]Loading...["The Lie of the Land (TV story)"]) and along the west coast was the Irish Sea. (COMIC: Seaside Rendezvous [+]Loading...["Seaside Rendezvous (comic story)"])

The capital of England was London, which, according to Captain Maitland, ceased to exist as an entity by the 24th century, and by the 28th century, had along with the lower half of England become a part of Central City. (TV: "Strangers in Space" [+]Part of The Sensorites, Loading...{"namedep":"Strangers in Space (1)","1":"The Sensorites (TV story)"})

Other notable cities in England included Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Exeter, (TV: Army of Ghosts [+]Loading...["Army of Ghosts (TV story)"]) Leeds, (TV: The Lie of the Land [+]Loading...["The Lie of the Land (TV story)"]) Liverpool, (TV: Army of Ghosts [+]Loading...["Army of Ghosts (TV story)"]) Manchester, (TV: The Lie of the Land [+]Loading...["The Lie of the Land (TV story)"]) Norwich, Nottingham, Plymouth and Southampton. (TV: Army of Ghosts [+]Loading...["Army of Ghosts (TV story)"])

Influence on the Doctor[[edit]]

The majority of the Doctor's visits to England followed the creation of the United Kingdom, but they still visited the country many times prior to this. (TV: The Time Meddler [+]Loading...["The Time Meddler (TV story)"], The King's Demons [+]Loading...["The King's Demons (TV story)"], The Visitation [+]Loading...["The Visitation (TV story)"], Silver Nemesis [+]Loading...["Silver Nemesis (TV story)"], The Shakespeare Code [+]Loading...["The Shakespeare Code (TV story)"], The Pandorica Opens [+]Loading...["The Pandorica Opens (TV story)"], The Day of the Doctor [+]Loading...["The Day of the Doctor (TV story)"], Robot of Sherwood [+]Loading...["Robot of Sherwood (TV story)"], AUDIO: The Marian Conspiracy [+]Loading...["The Marian Conspiracy (audio story)"], Seasons of Fear [+]Loading...["Seasons of Fear (audio story)"], The Kingmaker [+]Loading...["The Kingmaker (audio story)"], The Witch from the Well [+]Loading...["The Witch from the Well (audio story)"], The Wrath of the Iceni [+]Loading...["The Wrath of the Iceni (audio story)"], The Doctor's Tale [+]Loading...["The Doctor's Tale (audio story)"], Living History [+]Loading...["Living History (audio story)"],COMIC: Woden's Warriors [+]Loading...["Woden's Warriors (comic story)"], The Magician [+]Loading...["The Magician (comic story)"], Black Death White Life [+]Loading...["Black Death White Life (comic story)"], PROSE: The Real Hereward [+]Loading...["The Real Hereward (short story)"], The Thief of Sherwood [+]Loading...["The Thief of Sherwood (short story)"], The Nine-Day Queen [+]Loading...["The Nine-Day Queen (short story)"], Mortlake [+]Loading...["Mortlake (short story)"], Managra [+]Loading...["Managra (novel)"], The Plotters [+]Loading...["The Plotters (novel)"], The Roundheads [+]Loading...["The Roundheads (novel)"], The Republican's Story [+]Loading...["The Republican's Story (short story)"], Doctor Who and the Invasion from Space [+]Loading...["Doctor Who and the Invasion from Space (novel)"], GAME: The Gunpowder Plot [+]Loading...["The Gunpowder Plot (video game)"]) Of all the countries in the UK, it was England that influenced the Doctor the most. They adopted much of its customs, dress, and other cultural elements. Many of the Doctor's companions were English. (TV: An Unearthly Child [+]Loading...["An Unearthly Child (TV story)"] onwards) The Eighth Doctor once declared 19th century England to be his favourite time and place. (PROSE: The Banquo Legacy [+]Loading...["The Banquo Legacy (novel)"])

While the Doctor's accent in most of their incarnations were English, both the Seventh Doctor (TV: Time and the Rani [+]Loading...["Time and the Rani (TV story)"]) and the Twelfth Doctor spoke with a Scottish accent. Newly regenerated, the Twelfth Doctor was unaccustomed to the accents of his English company, Clara Oswald and Jenny Flint, initially describing it as infectious and incomprehensible. (TV: Deep Breath [+]Loading...["Deep Breath (TV story)"])


Early history[[edit]]

After several failed attempts, the Roman Empire succeeded in conquering Britain in 43. The Roman occupation of Britain lasted until the early 5th century. (AUDIO: The Wrath of the Iceni [+]Loading...["The Wrath of the Iceni (audio story)"]) One of these failed attempts was led by Julius Caesar in 55 BC. (AUDIO: Living History [+]Loading...["Living History (audio story)"])

Norman Conquest[[edit]]

Main article: Norman Conquest

On 5 January 1066, King of England, Edward the Confessor, died childless and with no heir to the throne. There were three main claimants.

Harold Godwinson was the Saxon leader and the Earl of Wessex. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Loading...["Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart (TV story)"]) Edith, who was Edward's queen (AUDIO: Seasons of Fear [+]Loading...["Seasons of Fear (audio story)"]) was also the sister of Harold. His family was the most powerful in England.

Harald Hardrada was a Viking and the King of Norway. He believed his ancestors and King Cnut of England had made an arrangement that gave him a right to the throne. He was supported by Harold's brother, Tostig.

William of Normandy was a Norman and Duke of Normandy. He was Edward's cousin and his only blood relative of the three claimants. He also alleged that Edward had promised him the throne in 1051.

When Edward died, Harold was crowned king becoming Harold II. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Loading...["Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart (TV story)"])

Harald attacked with three hundred longboats carrying his army to the north of England. He defeated the Northern Earls at Gate Fulford. Harold II travelled north and launched a surprise attack, defeating the unsuspecting Viking army in the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066. However, news soon arrived that William had invaded Sussex. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Loading...["Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart (TV story)"])

The Monk attempted to prevent the Norman victory by destroying a fleet of ships off the Northumbrian coast, but was stopped by the First Doctor. (TV: The Time Meddler [+]Loading...["The Time Meddler (TV story)"])

Harold marched his army south, covering hundreds of miles to face William and up to ten thousand Norman invaders in the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. During the battle, the Normans tricked the Saxon army into the open and showered them with arrows. Harold was killed in the battle and the English were defeated. According to legend, Harold was killed by an arrow to the eye, (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Loading...["Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart (TV story)"]) although Rani Chandra said she had read online that this was untrue. (TV: Lost in Time [+]Loading...["Lost in Time (TV story)"])

On 25 December 1066, William was crowned King of England. He became known as William the Conqueror.

After the conquest, the Normans created the Bayeux Tapestry, which told their version of events. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Loading...["Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart (TV story)"]) The tapestry was later added to, showing other events from England's history. (TV: The Power of Kroll [+]Loading...["The Power of Kroll (TV story)"])

William later faced rebellions against his rule in England. In 1069, he launched a series of campaigns to deal with the uprisings. He ordered villages to be burnt down and people to be killed. Those who survived starved to death, as all of the animals and crops had been destroyed. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Loading...["Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart (TV story)"])

In 1078, William began the construction of what he named the Tower of London, and many of the monarchs who succeeded him extended and added to the tower over the centuries that followed. (PROSE: The Time Traveller's Almanac [+]Loading...["The Time Traveller's Almanac (reference book)"])

William died in 1087. (PROSE: Vampire Science [+]Loading...["Vampire Science (novel)"])

Middle Ages[[edit]]

12th century[[edit]]

Richard the Lionheart. (TV: The Crusade [+]Loading...["The Crusade (TV story)"])

In the late 12th century, King Richard I personally participated in the Third Crusade, leading troops in the Holy Land. (TV: The Crusade [+]Loading...["The Crusade (TV story)"]) As he did so, John, his younger brother, ruled England in his stead. (TV: Invasion of the Dinosaurs [+]Loading...["Invasion of the Dinosaurs (TV story)"]) John became King upon Richard's death in 1199. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Loading...["A History of Humankind (novel)"])

13th century[[edit]]

Kamelion takes on the appearance of King John at the behest of the Tremas Master. (TV: The King's Demons [+]Loading...["The King's Demons (TV story)"])

While the real King John was in London taking the Crusader's Oath on 4 March 1215, the android Kamelion was being used in a plot by the Tremas Master to sabotage Earth history by preventing King John's signing of the Magna Carta, an event pivotal to the development of parliamentary democracy on that planet. The plot was foiled by the intervention of the Fifth Doctor. (TV: The King's Demons [+]Loading...["The King's Demons (TV story)"])

John was also notable for having lost the British Crown Jewels in the Wash in 1216. (TV: The King's Demons [+]Loading...["The King's Demons (TV story)"]) He was succeeded by his son Henry III, (PROSE: The King's Demons [+]Loading...["The King's Demons (novelisation)"]) who was crowned at Gloucester Cathedral in 1216, when he was nine years old. (TV: Fugitive of the Judoon [+]Loading...["Fugitive of the Judoon (TV story)"])

14th century[[edit]]

The English seized the castle of Edinburgh from the Scottish, only for it to be retaken by Thomas Randolph in 1314. (PROSE: The Many Hands [+]Loading...["The Many Hands (novel)"])

In the late 14th century, Richard II's reign saw a flourishing of art and culture. His favourites included the author Geoffrey Chaucer, the Earl of Kent and the Earl of Huntingdon. His emblem was the White Hart.

In 1399, he visited Ireland. Several months later, he was deposed by a group of rebellious barons led by Henry Plantagenet, also known as Henry of Bolingbroke. Henry seized the throne, becoming Henry IV. Richard II was imprisoned in Pomfret Castle. Having been denied food on the orders of the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Arundel, he starved to death in the castle in 1400.

Before they learned of his death, Chaucer, his son Tom and Ian Chesterton were involved in a plot to assassinate Henry IV in the hope of restoring Richard to the throne. (AUDIO: The Doctor's Tale [+]Loading...["The Doctor's Tale (audio story)"])

15th century[[edit]]

In 1415, Henry V led the fight at the Battle of Agincourt, part of the Hundred Years' War. (TV: The Woman Who Lived [+]Loading...["The Woman Who Lived (TV story)"], COMIC: The Secret of the Emperor [+]Loading...["The Secret of the Emperor (comic story)"], PROSE: The Reign Makers [+]Loading...["The Reign Makers (short story)"])

In the mid-15th century, the Scottish Border Wars were a series of territory conflicts fought between Scotland and England. In 1447, a minor battle was fought in Alnwick which was won by a Scottish warlord. (PROSE: Iris at the V&A [+]Loading...["Iris at the V&A (short story)"])

Edward IV died suddenly on the night of 9 April 1483. His successor, Prince Edward V, was still a twelve-year-old (AUDIO: The Battle of the Tower [+]Loading...["The Battle of the Tower (audio story)"]) child whose mother's family was manoeuvreing to keep the future king under their own control. The Queen Consort sent her brother, Earl Rivers, to escort the prince back to London. The escort passed through Buckinghamshire, where Richard, Duke of Gloucester and brother of the late Edward, and his ally Henry, Duke of Buckingham joined the Prince's party to keep close watch on both him and Rivers.

After the Prince and Rivers had retired at an inn, Richard and Henry were startled by the arrival of the Doctor's TARDIS. A mysterious man calling himself Mr Seyton emerged, claiming to be a wise traveller who had come from the future to provide counsel to Richard. Seyton told Richard he would be crowned king, and centuries later there would even be a play based on his reign. Richard was dubious about Seyton's claims of foreknowledge, but considered his presence a portent. Richard decided to allow Seyton to prove himself as adviser.

Before the young Prince could be crowned King, he and his brother were declared illegitimate by the court when it invalidated the marriage of the deceased King Edward to their mother. Richard was crowned king.

Seyton remained the king's adviser, and continually insisted that removing the princes from the line of succession would not be enough to solidify his claim to the throne and they should be killed. Richard was unwilling to murder his brother's children and refused, insisting that locking the princes in the Tower of London was enough.

In 1485, the mystery of the princes' disappearance was investigated by the Fifth Doctor, Peri Brown and Erimem, whom discovered Seyton's true plan and identity, 16th century playwright William Shakespeare. After a disastrous unfinished performance of Shakespeare's play Richard III in 1597, the Doctor had chastised Shakespeare for not doing his research and presenting a distorted view of Richard as a Machiavellian ruler who rose to power by murdering the two princes in the Tower. Infuriated by the Doctor's account of actual events which implicated the bloodline of his beloved Queen Elizabeth I, Shakespeare sneaked aboard the TARDIS stole various items of alien technology and weaponry, and travelled to 1483 in an attempt to influence history to more closely resemble his play.

Richard had realised Seyton/Shakespeare was untrustworthy from the beginning, however, and it was revealed that the point was moot; there were no princes in the Tower after all. Edward IV had not had sons but daughters, Susan and Judith. Edward kept up the ruse that they were boys in order to guard his family's claim to the throne with male heirs. After Edward's death, Richard discovered the ruse. He kept up the pretence that there were two princes in the tower while in reality he had sent his nieces to live out their lives safely as peasants working for Clarrie, innkeeper at The Kingmaker. Clarrie was really Richard's other brother George, disgraced Duke of Clarence, who had been sentenced to death for plotting against Edward IV. Unwilling to have his brother executed, Richard had quietly effected George's escape into anonymity.

According to one source, Richard found himself in the TARDIS as the Doctor attempted to take Shakespeare back to 1597, arriving on-stage as the unruly performance was breaking up. Shakespeare stormed onto the stage, enraged by the rowdy audience and the interruption of his play. Richard was even more enraged by the stereotypical portrayal in the play as an ugly, hunchbacked man with a limp and withered arm. He chased Shakespeare through 1597 London. Shakespeare doubled back to the TARDIS, and threatened to detonate a Sontaran grenade unless the Doctor returned immediately to 1485 to pick up the missing princesses; with Richard, they would all be brought back to Shakespeare's own time and stand trial for their crimes against the crown. During the confrontation Erimem broke Shakespeare's arm, and he was further injured by a robot when he left the TARDIS once again, this time at the 1485 Battle of Bosworth, Richard's historically recorded final defeat. Shakespeare, with his injured arm and limp, matched the stereotypical description of King Richard, and was killed by Richard's enemies in his place at the battle.

This source suggested that Richard decided to return to 1597 and take Shakespeare's allotted place in history; he had never really wanted power, and had no desire to return to the throne in his own time when the common public sentiment was that he had killed his nephews. Richard saw taking up Shakespeare's writing career as his second chance at earning a place in history. The Doctor recommended Richard contact Francis Bacon for writing tips. Settling into his new life as Shakespeare, Richard was soon surprised by a visit from Susan and Judith, whom the Doctor had brought forward in time to join him; history recorded that not only had Shakespeare had a son who'd died, but two daughters, and since the princesses had no place in the history of their own time the Doctor knew their true destiny lay with their uncle as he pursued his own. (AUDIO: The Kingmaker [+]Loading...["The Kingmaker (audio story)"])

This source is one of the only to ever reference the switching of Shakespeare and Richard, and in fact most sources suggest that both men continued in their lives as historically suggested. (PROSE: The Empire of Glass [+]Loading...["The Empire of Glass (novel)"], et al)

The Tudors[[edit]]

Henry Tudor was the victor of the Battle of Bosworth, claiming the crown of England on that battlefield after Richard was seemingly killed in the battle. (AUDIO: The Kingmaker [+]Loading...["The Kingmaker (audio story)"]) He reigned from 1485 to 1509 and had four children. (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo [+]Loading...["The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo (TV story)"])

Among Henry Tudor's children was Henry VIII, who ascended to the throne in 1509. (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo [+]Loading...["The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo (TV story)"]) This year, at the age of 17, he married Catherine of Aragon. (PROSE: Nothing Lasts Forever [+]Loading...["Nothing Lasts Forever (short story)"])

Henry spent most of his father's money fighting wars against France.

Henry broke away from the the Catholic Church because the pope prevented him from divorcing Catherine, who he thought was unable to give him a male heir to the throne. This action also gave him more money and power. (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo [+]Loading...["The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo (TV story)"])

In 1539, the Third Doctor and Liz Shaw visited Henry VIII. The Doctor cured Henry of his cataracts with his sonic screwdriver, and Liz and the Doctor finally relieved the King of his hiccups. On regaining his eyesight, King Henry expressed discontent at the appearance of his prospective new wife, the Lady Anne of Cleves, based on her miniature portrait, calling the woman "ugly as my privy!" The King was also rejuvenated by his newfound sight, and invited the Doctor and Liz to Hampton Court, though they declined. (PROSE: Hiccup in Time [+]Loading...["Hiccup in Time (short story)"])

In 1547, Henry was succeeded by his Protestant son, Edward VI. Edward died aged 15 in 1553. (AUDIO: The Marian Conspiracy [+]Loading...["The Marian Conspiracy (audio story)"], TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo [+]Loading...["The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo (TV story)"])

Lady Jane Grey became Queen when aged 16 as her father in-law wished, but she never wanted to rule. On 19 July 1553, the ninth and final day of her reign, Jane learned that Mary had claimed the throne and proclaimed Jane a traitor who would be sentenced to death. (TV: Lost in Time [+]Loading...["Lost in Time (TV story)"]) She was executed on 12 February 1554. (PROSE: The Nine-Day Queen [+]Loading...["The Nine-Day Queen (short story)"])

In 1558, Elizabeth I ascended to the throne upon the death of her half-sister, Mary I, in November, (AUDIO: The Marian Conspiracy [+]Loading...["The Marian Conspiracy (audio story)"]) becoming Queen of England as well as Ireland and Wales. In 1601, the Poor Relief Act created a national poor-law system for England and Wales, forming the origin of workhouses. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Loading...["A History of Humankind (novel)"])

The Stuarts[[edit]]

King James of England and Scotland. (TV: The Witchfinders [+]Loading...["The Witchfinders (TV story)"])

James I of England, known in Scotland as James VI, succeeded Elizabeth I in 1603 and continued her Protestant reforms. According to the Eighth Doctor, his accent was so thick, members of his new English court required a translator. A close advisor to the new king was William Lethbridge-Stewart, an ancestor of Alistair Gordon Lethbridge-Stewart. (PROSE: The Dying Days [+]Loading...["The Dying Days (novel)"], Birthright [+]Loading...["Birthright (novel)"])

Over his reign, James granted Royal Charters for various organisations such as universities. One of those universities included the institution that later became St Luke's University. (PROSE: Girl Power! [+]Loading...["Girl Power! (short story)"])

An influential version of the Bible was ordered by him, and eventually bore his name. The First Doctor and Vicki Pallister once passed by the room where the translators were busy working on what would become the King James Bible. According to Barbara Wright, James' rule was characterised by relative religious tolerance. Though a staunch Protestant, he discouraged persecution of Catholics. Barbara claimed that he realised that "to govern well it made sense to unify people rather than drive them apart".

For a brief time, the TARDIS came into James' possession, but he was mostly annoyed by it, calling it a "wooden puzzle box" because he and his courtiers could not gain entrance to it. In the end, he entreated the Doctor to perform an exorcism upon it, just to ensure it was not possessed by evil spirits. The Doctor agreed, and performed an elaborate ceremony at the Guildhall in London. During the middle of this ceremony, eagerly attended by James, the Doctor and his three companions entered the TARDIS and dematerialised. (PROSE: The Plotters [+]Loading...["The Plotters (novel)"])

On 5 November 1605, Guy Fawkes and other Catholic conspirators planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill James and his sons, Henry and Charles, installing his daughter Elizabeth as a puppet queen, in what was known as the Gunpowder Plot. The attempt was thwarted by James's men (GAME: The Gunpowder Plot [+]Loading...["The Gunpowder Plot (video game)"]) and Fawkes's failure was celebrated every year as Bonfire Night. (PROSE: The Night After Hallowe'en [+]Loading...["The Night After Hallowe'en (short story)"])

By the mid-17th century, the nobility of England were beginning to lose their political power and influence. However, many of these lords and ladies remained prominent members of their local communities. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Loading...["A History of Humankind (novel)"])

Upon James' death in 1625, he was succeeded by his son Charles I, who ruled England, Ireland and Scotland.

For eleven years he ruled without regard for the Parliament, ultimately causing the English Civil War, wich lasted from 1641 to 1651. The Civil War brought down the King and saw the rise of Oliver Cromwell. By December 1648, Charles Stuart was a prisoner on the Isle of Wight and then in the Hurst Castle. Despite his successful escape aided by Polly Wright, he was eventually executed. According to the Second Doctor, no mention of his escape was left in history and his trial was to happen on 20 January 1649. (PROSE: The Roundheads [+]Loading...["The Roundheads (novel)"]) Lady Peinforte was a supporter of Charles I. (TV: Silver Nemesis [+]Loading...["Silver Nemesis (TV story)"])

In 1658, England was at war with Spain. (AUDIO: The Waters of Amsterdam [+]Loading...["The Waters of Amsterdam (audio story)"])

There was a time period in the 17th century when England was ruled by the Parliament rather than a king or a queen. (AUDIO: The Witch from the Well [+]Loading...["The Witch from the Well (audio story)"])

James II was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution in November 1688. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution [+]Loading...["The Glorious Revolution (audio story)"])

The United Kingdom[[edit]]

18th century[[edit]]

In the 18th century, during the reign of King George II, England and Scotland, bound by the Act of Union, fought France across Europe in the Seven Years' War, which a Slitheen disguised as Sir Edward Scott Cameron would describe as a prequel to World War I and "a glorious affair" that "spanned continents" and "consumed countless lives." (AUDIO: Death on the Mile [+]Loading...["Death on the Mile (audio story)"])

20th century[[edit]]

The 1902 Education Act overhauled the education system of England and Wales, establishing Local Education Authorities which funded the state-run schools and those affiliated to the Church of England and the Catholic Church. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Loading...["A History of Humankind (novel)"])

21st century[[edit]]

Goronwy Siencyn of the Pan-Wales Culture, History, Sport, Industry and Heritage Institute stated that Cardiff Castle was a symbol of English oppression and so supported Lord Mayor of Cardiff Margaret Blaine's plan to demolish it in favour of Blaidd Drwg. Following the Cardiff Earthquake, (PROSE: The Western Mail [+]Loading...["The Western Mail (feature)"], TV: Boom Town [+]Loading...["Boom Town (TV story)"]) however, the landmark remained. (PROSE: Another Life [+]Loading...["Another Life (novel)"], TV: Everything Changes [+]Loading...["Everything Changes (TV story)"])

During the ghost shift craze of 2007, ghosts, actually Cybermen from Pete's World, were forecast as appearing throughout England, most notably in London. (TV: Army of Ghosts [+]Loading...["Army of Ghosts (TV story)"])

Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty of the European Union was triggered by the United Kingdom in March 2017. (PROSE: Time Lapse [+]Loading...["Time Lapse (short story)"]) By 2019, the United Kingdom had left the European Union in what became known as Brexit. (PROSE: Lucy Wilson and the Bledoe Cadets [+]Loading...["Lucy Wilson and the Bledoe Cadets (novel)"])

The Manchester Eagles were England's most successful football team of 2069. (PROSE: Space Freak! [+]Loading...["Space Freak! (short story)"])

Later history[[edit]]

England was still a part of the UK in the 33rd century, when the British population, bar Scotland, inhabited Starship UK. (TV: The Beast Below [+]Loading...["The Beast Below (TV story)"])

Alternate timelines[[edit]]

Speaking during the English Civil War, the Second Doctor admitted to Polly Wright that he had seen or heard of "all kinds of" possible futures from the "great" to "truly terrible", which were "all out there". He acknowledged Englands with a third, fourth, or fifth Civil War, a resurgent monarch who ruthlessly oppressed all democracy, a triumphalist, hereditary Puritan Protectorate that ruled the country until the 20th century, or an invading Catholic army which took advantage of England's crisis to take over most of the known world. (PROSE: The Roundheads [+]Loading...["The Roundheads (novel)"])

In the Game of Napoleon and Wellington, the United Kingdom was among the nations which were conquered by France and thus incorporated into Napoléon Bonaparte's World Empire. When the Empire collapsed upon Napoleon's death, the conquered countries split up into separate mini-states, discreetly encouraged by the Players. "Revert[ing] to type", the United Kingdom split into the three separate kingdoms of England, Scotland and Wales, any two of them usually at war with the third. (PROSE: World Game [+]Loading...["World Game (novel)"])


"England" was also frequently the casual name of sporting teams that represented the country in international play. The English cricket team who participated in The Ashes, for instance, was said to simply be "England". (PROSE: Graham Dilley Saves the World [+]Loading...["Graham Dilley Saves the World (short story)"])

Cricket was popular within small communities who often had a village team. (TV: Black Orchid [+]Loading...["Black Orchid (TV story)"]) Stockbridge was such a village, and one greatly favoured by the Doctor. He would sometimes spend the entire cricket season living in the village and playing for the local club. (AUDIO: Summer [+]Loading...["Summer (audio story)"])

Still, football was the most popular sport in England, and one of the oldest. (COMIC: Doctor Who and the Nightmare Game [+]Loading...["Doctor Who and the Nightmare Game (comic story)"], The Lodger [+]Loading...["The Lodger (comic story)"], TV: The Lodger [+]Loading...["The Lodger (TV story)"]) In 2030, Scotland played England's football team in the World Cup final in Wembley Stadium, with the Eleventh Doctor calling it "one of the greatest football matches in history!" He meant to take Amy Pond here, but instead they ended up on a space station. (COMIC: Apotheosis [+]Loading...["Apotheosis (comic story)"])

Other sports were popular within England. It had a long heritage of golf players and the sport was often played with great seriousness. (TV: The Sea Devils [+]Loading...["The Sea Devils (TV story)"], Random Shoes [+]Loading...["Random Shoes (TV story)"], Dinosaurs on a Spaceship [+]Loading...["Dinosaurs on a Spaceship (TV story)"], Last Christmas [+]Loading...["Last Christmas (TV story)"])